1. Define four factors involved in cardiac output:

a) Afterload

b) Preload

C) Contractility

D) Heart rate

2. Describe what variables increase or decrease afterload, preload, heart rate, and contractility.

3. Explain the relationship between afterload, preload, heart rate, contractility, and cardiac output?

4. Explain how medications from the list below affect the cardiac output? You should include the changes in afterload, preload, contractility, and heart rates as part of your answer.
Medications List: 

ACE inhibitors,

Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB),

Calcium Channel Blocker,

Beta-adrenergic blocker,



Alpha-1 receptor antagonist