1-Release of the viral genome from the remainder of the virus is termed:









2-Viruses are not cells. They lack the cytoplasm and the cellular organelles necessary for metabolism. Therefore, viruses must replicate using the metabolic machinery of the host cell.  In other words, viruses do not grow and divide. Instead, new viral components are synthesized and assembled within the infected host cell.







3-The attachment structures on enveloped viruses are the:


a-nucleocapsid proteins


c-tail fibers

d-glycoprotein spikes in the envelope




4-The binding of attachment sites on the viral surface with receptor sites on the host cell membrane is called:








5-What are bacteriophages?


a. bacteria that infect other bacteria

c. eukaryotic viruses that kill bacteria

d. viruses that infect human cells

b. viruses and are parasites of eukaryotic cells

e. viruses and are parasites specific to prokaryotic cells




6-Noroviral gastroenteritis is usually cured with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. 







7-Which of the following descriptions correctly identifies the main structural difference between a naked virus and a viruses with an envelope?


a-Each has a species specific type of phospholipid outer layer

b-naked viruses only have DNA genomes, whereas enveloped viruses only have RNA genomes

c-genomes of naked viruses are encapsulated by a protein capsid, whereas genomes of enveloped viruses are encapsulated by d-a phospholipid membrane

e-enveloped viruses have an outer phospholipid membrane, whereas naked viruses lack an outer phospholipid membrane




8-State what criteria are used in viral classification. 


a-the type of nucleic acid they have for their genome

b-the shape of their capsid (example, helical or polyhedral)

c-whether they infect bats or mosquitos.

d-whether they have a tail structure

e-whether they are enveloped or naked (lack an envelope)




9-Viruses of different families have varied geometric structures. Which of the following is true?


a-The nucleic acid is commonly linear

b-All viruses have the same basic geometry

c-Virus nucleocapsids are either icosahedral or helical

d-All viruses have a lipid bilayer




10-A quasi species virus such as influenza A has which of the following characteristics?

A quasispecies is a large group or “cloud” of related genotypes that exist in an environment of high mutation rate.


a-Possesses RNA and DNA

b-Co-existence of many genetic variants

c-A very large genome

d-A fragmented or segmented genome




11-Which animals have historically been mixing vessels for the generation of pathogenic influenza virus in humans?









12-Picornavirus replication as a positive strand RNA virus is particularly typified by which of the following?


a-virus particles carry RNA transcriptase enzyme into the cell

b-viral RNA is translated into a single large polyprotein

c-virus exits by apoptosis of the host cell

d-viral RNA acting as mRNA




13-How is SARS-CoV-2 released from the host cell? 


a-By host cell lysis.

b-By endocytosis.

c-By budding from the host cell plasma membrane.

d-By exocytosis.




14-SARS-CoV-2 is described as a zoonotic virus. What does this mean?


a-They are the cause of all pandemics

b-They emerge from animals to cross the species barrier, but infrequently

c-Such viruses are confined to humans after making the species jump

d-They cause disease in only extremely immunocompromised humans