?A 13- year- old adolescent with a confirmed diagnosis of sickle cell anemia has been admitted to the pediatric inpatient unit for Vaso occlusive crisis. She complains of pain in multiple areas of the body and shortness of breath.

How is sickle cell disease diagnosed?

A) Evaluation of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
B) Echocardiogram
C) Hemoglobin electrophoresis
D) Newborn screen collected in the first days of life

In the interest of preventing infections from pathogens known to frequently cause illness in this population, which of the following vaccines should be verified and administered if necessary? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

B) Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)
C) Varicella
D) Meningococcal
E) LAIV- Flumist

The pediatric client with sickle cell anemia is at increased risk for infection. Which of the following are conditions that increase the risk for infection in these clients? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

A) Inadequate response to vaccines
B) Reduction in size of the spleen
C) Decrease in blood flow to the lungs
D) Delayed wound healing
E) Headaches