When people are just concerned with compliance with laws or professional standards (e. codes of ethics), what level of ethics is involved?


Professional Ethics and the Law
Text: Counseling Ethics and Decision Making
3rd Edition, 2007

ISBN: 10: 0131710052; 13: 9780131710054
Robert R. Cottone, University of Missouri, St. Louis
Vilia M. Tarvydas, University of Iowa
Pearson/ Merrill

PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

When people are just concerned with compliance with laws or professional
standards (e. codes of ethics), what level of ethics is involved?
Which one of the following statements is NOT CONSISTENT with the
philosophy of Nietzsche?
the theory of evolution
we should be assisting the development of survival of the fittest
we should be directed by pity
the weak and the failures should perish
When there is a discussion of “theory” as related to judgments of right and
wrong, the discussion is probably one of:
philosophical morality
professional ethics
common morality
philosophical ethics
none of the above
Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as part of the professional
structure which governs ethics for counselors?
the courts
colleges and universities
professional organizations that maintain and enforce a mandatory code of
professional regulatory bodies that are enforcers of mandatory codes
none of the above
There are different types of accredi Beyond a college or university’s
accreditation to offer degrees, there is accreditation for programs, typically
diplomate accreditation
professional accreditation
specialty accreditation
board approval


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

The oldest and most widely recognized professional counseling specialty
designation is the credential.
A voluntary means for professionals to identify themselves as trained and
qualified specialists is:
none of the above
Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training
and practice, perform psychometric assessment?
social worker
marriage and family therapist
none of the above
The ASPP and ASPS credential applies to which field of mental health
Marriage and Family Therapy
Social Work
Psychiatric Nursing
Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level
training to be a licensed Psychologist?
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Eth ics and the Law

11. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without
appropriate specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their
Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms “dual” and “multiple”
relationships should be abandoned.
Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical
principle of justice more than nonmalefi
People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced.
When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex-
offender’s rehabilitation, this is called:
expert order of protection
compulsory therapy
professional responsi bi I ity
legal privilege
1 Professional competence by definition involves:
the quality of provided services
boundaries of professional activity
informed consent
a and b
14. Having sex with a client is:
unethical counseling practice
only allowed after the client and therapist relationship has been
terminated for at least one year
acceptable with a written agreement and a waiver of ethical rights
none of the above
The Tarasoff decision refers to what?
The duty of an ethics board to suspend licensure after a clear ethics
The duty of a therapist to keep confidentiality even when called as a
witness in court cases.
The duty of a therapist to break confidentiality when someone makes a
direct threat.
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Eth ies and the Law

A counselor’s primary responsibility is to the:
third party if they are the ones paying the bill
judge who subpoenas a case file
family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling
client, and the client only
all of the above
The term that pertains to the legal right of clients to prevent their confidential
communications from being revealed in legal proceedings is:
privileged communication
informed consent
When assessing a client’s potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress
recommend the counselor assess primarily which element(s)?
probability of harm
physical vs. psychological nature of harm
magnitude of harm
both a and c are correct
According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice
liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is:
fraudulent billing
dual relationships
family treatment and forensic situations
group counseling
Which of the following conditions is NOT a required element of informed


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

2l. law addresses conduct required by or prohibited by all

individuals and is enforced by governmental legal authorities.

Civil law
Client values determine the _____________________ of counseling.
level of progress
all of the above
23. Counselor values tend to determine the ___________________ of counseling.
level of professionalism
rate of progress
Principle ethics can be said to be based primarily upon which of the
western culture
male-oriented worldview
all of the above
a and conly
Why has the ethics of care approach been criticized?
The focus is primarily societal with lack of concern for the individual.
Application is limited to the health sci
There is a lack of a coherent definition.
all of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what
theoretical model?
general psychologically based models
social constructivism
none of the above
Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an
ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following:
the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is
how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory frame
work for the decision process itself)
how values are weighed by the decision maker
all of the above
According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making,
when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction

to _________ _

accompl ish an agreement on the decision to be made
determine whether arbitration should be undertaken
be able to make the decision on their own
hold firm to their original position
Ethical dilemmas are atn).
sign of the importance of professional judgment
failure of ethical codes
affirmation that one is “practicing” a profession
only a and c of the above
all of the above
Hare argued that the intuitive level of everyday decision making was not
sufficient and is superceded by another level of moral decision making. What
is that level?
critical thinking
consu Itative
fact finding


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

31. Cottone’s model of ethical decision making is based on:
purely social-relational model
purely relational theory
ethical principles
psychologically-based ethical decision making
When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an
individual within the workplace, this would be described as:
a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a
individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values
relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one an
a case of mobbing within an organizational culture
all of the above
Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from
excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called:
occupational mental injury
overstress syndrome
organizational mental injury
mental health injury
At present there are several corporations that are establishing company
policies that support an individual’s right to be employed in an environment
that is free from mobbing.
false, it would never work
false that is something for the future
true, this is happening at present
none of the above are correct
Professional roles within an organizational culture are constructed in response
to which of the following?
professional practices
institutional expectations
personal needs
both a and b are correct
all of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

Pro bono publico refers to what?
working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the

general public

being an expert witness at a criminal trial
serving a client at no charge
none of the above
a spanish speaking counselor

It is standard practice to destroy case records generally _____________________________ years after

services have been terminated.

none of the above
Regarding the ethical issues surrounding complimentary and alternative
medicine, which of the following statements is true?
The current status quo does not include a “don’t ask/don’t tell” approach.
Managed care typically never rei mburses for CAMs.
CAM advocates may be denying the role of traditional medicine.
Individuals who choose CAMs as a treatment forfeit their right to
39. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include:
informed consent
both band c are correct
A rehabilitation counselor working for a managed care company is concerned
about the limitations the company is placing on the treatment of the clients
they are seei The next time this counselor sees a client, they place a more
severe diagnosis in the clients chart in an attempt to obtain an increased
number of counseling sessions. This behavior is unethical and is considered
which of the following?
bono publico


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

41. Passive euthanasia would best be defined as:
rational suicide
intentional termination of life
mercy killing
none of the above
The study of the entire set of human genes, the assembly of the gene
sequence, gene expression and the relationship between different gene
sequences is called:
human genome project
genetic decoding
none of the above
A type of test administration that especially does not transfer well to
computerized assessment is:
vocational interest testing
aptitude testing
personality testing
none of the above
According to the text, which of the following is (are) the most likely reason(s)
why counselors may not purchase adequate computer safety systems to
protect cl ient data?
presumed unlikelihood of unethical file disclosure
amount of installation time required
a and b only
all of the above
HIPPA rules require that the counselor disclose policies related to the use
and disclosure of protected health information and that this occur:
within 24 hours of the first treatment contact
within 48 hours of the first treatment contact
within a week of the first treatment contact
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

The ethical codes of APA and ACA require computer assisted assessment
software developers to provide empirical evidence of safety and effectiveness
prior to making claims as to the effectiveness of their product. What is the
situation regarding ethical standards on the provision of evidence before
developers of self-help or therapeutic software market this material?
They must provide evidence of superior results when compared to in-vivo


They must provide evidence of training for counselors prior to use.
They must provide evidence of safety and effectiveness.
No evidence of safety and effectiveness is required.
As defined by NBCC and others, the practice of professional counseling and
information delivery that occurs when the client(s) and counselor are in
separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate
over the I nternet is best defined as:
techno intervention
web therapy
web counseling
These terms are outdated and possibly harmful concepts, but were previously
used in counselor training programs several decades ago.
a and b only
none of the above
The tendency to treat others relative to one’s own cultural perspective with an
apparent disregard for cultural differences is called:
cultural bias
cultural deficit
none of the above
As a counselor you provide counseling services to individuals from different
cultures than your own. You would be providing this type of counseling:
cl ient centered


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

As a second generation Polish American counselor in a rural mental health
center that serves a primarily Hispanic population you are frequently involved
in helping relationships with individuals who have a socially constructed
worldview that differs from your own. You would be providing this type of
cou nse ling:
client centered
none of the above
A professional advocacy issue related to social justice of which counselors
need to be aware when examining data obtained from the U.S. Census of
2000 is the:
identification of single race only status
exclusion of Asian populations as a racial category
inclusion of three or more races category
exclusion of Latino populations as a racial category
Due to the lack of clarity in professional codes of ethics related to
multicultural situations, counselors may find themselves faced with engaging
responsible disobedience
dual relationships
illegal activity
immoral activity
both a and d
A counselor who utilizes the terms culturally disadvantaged or cultural deficit
may cause harm by:
using terms that are stigmatizing and cause emotional damage
placing a psychological assignment on individuals or a group that may
impact their perceived ability to meet or exceed members of a dominate
causing the counselor to have increased and inappropriate expectations
of a client
all of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

Imperative to the field of marriage and family therapy is the idea of:
psychoanylitic theory
the ‘traditional’ family
systemic relationships
all of the above
Which association has the “clinical member” category of membership?
none of the above

The idea of was affirmed by the Declaration of Helsinki, after Nazi

doctors at concentration camps were found to have done harmful experiments
on ethnic groups.

informed consent
moral responsibility
the Hippocratic Oath
none of the above
Which is NOT one of the interventions that school counselors use to
provide direct services in their school?
collaboration with teachers
consu Itation
none of the above
Arnold v. Board of Education of Escambia County (1989) was a court
decision regarding what?
a counselor having inappropriate sexual relations with a student
a counselor giving a student advice on abortion
a counselor withholding information about a threat which was made from
a client towards another person which resulted in that person’s death
a counselor failing to notify authorities of a student’s intent of suicide
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

In determining what action a counselor should take in ethical dilemmas
presented by potentially detrimental relationships, which step to come to a
conclusion is NOT listed in your text?
Think carefully
Consult the necessary codes and experts
Identify the ethical issues
Temporarily suspend the relationship until a conclusion is made
none of the above

6l. Which of the following activities potentially could be viewed as an instance
of self harm?

reckless sexual behavior
cult membership
eating disorder
all of the above are correct
on Iy a and c are correct
Which statement is true regarding the federal regulations about minor
students and substance abuse treatment?
The student may go though the entire treatment process without the
Parents automatically must be notified of the student’s enrollment in
treatment, but not progress.
Parents must be notified of the student’s enrollment only if the parent
requests this information.
none of the above is correct
A mental status examination:
involves placing electrodes on the individual’s scalp to monitor brain
involves feeling the individual’s scalp to assess lumps or bumps that may
i nd icate over development of the brai n
is a structured interview designed to promote raising the person’s status to
a higher mental level
is a structured interview designed to provide a controlled interpersonal
setting for the emergence of signs and symptoms of a mental disorder


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

The organization most representative of the mental health counselor’s
interests is the:
none of the above
As per your text, which is NOT one of the roles of the mental health
remediation of maladaption
improving quality of life
prevention of problems
none of the above
Which of the following is NOT one of the three core factors in vocational
knowledge of occupations
the ability to understand relationships between self and information
about occupations
effective decision making skills
clear self understanding
To practice career counseling according to the minimum ethical standards
established by NCDA, counselors must demonstrate proficiency in:
rehabilitation counseling
psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
career counseling competencies
all of the above
This is granted only through statute and legal precedent and the types of
professionals covered by this privilege vary by jurisdiction.
privileged communication
therapeutic communication
counseling relationship


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

According to Pope (1999) when clients first present for career counseling it

is important to assess how much involvement both the is

(are) needed by the client in their decision making process.

extended family and community
potential employer and former employer
significant other and children
former employer and family
none of the above
As a counselor, if the ethical values at your place of employment are in
conflict with your professional ethics, what should you do?
Stay on the job because there are some things you cannot change.
Seriously consider resigning from your position.
Talk with your co-workers about their thoughts.
Nothing, for there is nothing you can do about corporate culture.
The person who is credited historically with defining practice in the field of
career or vocational guidance is:
Talcott Parsons
Parson Talcott
Parson Frank
none of the above
Clients of career counselors who are members of the NCDA (and thereby
bound by the NCDA Ethical Standards), but who receive career counseling
in schools, colleges or universities where the counselor is not required to
be licensed by the state, should be primarily concerned with limits of:
maintenance of records
privileged communication
none of the above
Related to privileged communication and group counseling, privileged
may not stand, depending on the wording of the relevant statutes and

case law

historically has been respected in group counseling
can be guaranteed in all cases with a licensed professional
prevents gossip about cases to uninvolved third parties in informal


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

If a group of minors is being counseled, the parents of the minors:
must respect the counselor/client privilege of confidentiality
have the right to information about the nature and content of counseling
have the right to attend a group session as a chaperone
all of the above
75. CRCC provides code of ethics enforcement for which of the following?
individual members of ACA and ARCA
individuals who hold the CRCC certification
individual members of NRA and NRCA
individuals who hold the CRC certification
If the counselor holds the culturally dominant high level of value regarding
trad itiona I work, he or she may not react positively to i nd ivid ua Is who wish to
work in which area?
factory setti ngs
in-home as caregivers
only part time to pursue avocational interests
all of the above
band conly
The collaborative consortium of key rehabilitation counseling professional
organizations formed in 2004 is the:
Alliance for Rehabilitation Counseling
American Rehabilitation Counselors United
National Rehabilitation Association
Rehabilitation Counseling Consortium
The two major professional organizations for rehabilitation counselors are:
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

According to the CRC code of ethics, counselors are discouraged from having
any sexual relationships with former clients, however the code does bar such
a relationship before what period of time has passed?
1 year
3 years
5 years
10 years
sexual relationships are NEVER allowed with former clients
80. Addictions counseling requires:
no training at all if one is a recovering addict
a graduate degree in psychology with a focus on addictions
only a license (to practice ethically)
a Bachelor’s degree
none of the above
This organization is the largest organization serving addiction counselors,
educators, and other health care professionals who deal with addiction.
none of the above
Twelve-step group members are:
required by law to maintain confidentiality
involved in groups directed and facilitated by professional counselors
required by law to avoid dual relationships
none of the above
The 12-step approach of Alcoholics Anonymous has been:
discredited by the majority of professionals because of the
religious nature of the program
shown to be most effective when combined with professional
proven to be effective only in the treatment of alcoholism, but
not with other addictions
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

What is the NBCC specialty designation for counseling professionals who
work primarily with addiction?
none of the above
How many elements MUST be included to make a consent to release
information form valid?
none of the above
Which is NOT a setting listed in your text where substance abuse treatment
may be delivered?
outpatient setting
alternative health clinic
none of the above
How many of the criteria for substance dependence must be present for the
diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence?
none of the above
Which is NOT one of the requirements for the Master Addiction Counselor
500 hours of substance abuse training
3 years of full-time supervised experience in the field
Passing score on the nation exam
Doctora I degree
none of the above


PSY511 – Professional Eth ics and the Law

A counselor is supervising a student counselor providing services in a
community mental health center. They have open communication and review
the student’s case files on a daily and weekly basis. The student had a client
he felt had the potential for suicide, however he didn’t know what to do. He
asked his supervisor for advice. The supervisor informed him that he had
worked with this client for an extensive period of time and the client had
demonstrated manipulative attention seeking behaviors with various
personnel employed at the agency. The client winds up committing suicide
by jumping off a freeway overpass, and in the process kills an innocent
dri The victim’s family, upon learning the jumper had threatened suicide
before decides to bring charges against the mental health center. Who is
ultimately responsible for failing to protect the client from harm to himself?
the student
the supervisor
both the student and the supervisor equally
ultimately the supervisor but also the student
On an internship a male student is being supervised by a female. On a
consistent basis the supervisor makes remarks in a joking manner that focus
on the student’s bulging muscles, gorgeous tanned skin, physique and other
personal quali The student feels as if he is in a difficult situation since
he doesn’t want to fail his internship but feels uncomfortable about the
comments his supervisor frequently makes. This student is being confronted
sexual assault
sexual harassment
dual relationship
no professional restrictions to date his supervisor
To reduce the potential for ethical conflicts to occur within supervision, a
supervisor can:
use professional disclosure statements
supervise only in a group setting
develop formal supervision plans
both a and c are correct
Which of the following is (are) effective suggestions for supervisors to
consider to avoid malpractice lawsuits?
possess appropriate knowledge, skill and work habits
foster healthy, respectful relationships
have keen knowledge of self
all of the above


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

To be considered a qualified clinical supervisor, individuals in the field are
required to:
complete 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in supervision
be a licensed clinician for a period of at least 10 years
have a Doctoral degree
a and b only
none of the above
A student counselor is providing services to a client and audiotapes each of
the sessions for individual review with their supervisor and group review with
their fellow students. The client was not informed that their counselor was

a student in training or of the purpose of the audiotaping. The supervisor and
supervisee have violated which of the following?

client informed consent
client confidentiality
supervisee confidentiality
both a and b are correct

The ACS identifies content areas that training in clinical supervision

must include.

Related to potential ethical situations, supervisors often have which of the
following concerns?
Most code of professional ethics have limited information regarding
su pervision.
The supervisor must constantly examine the ethical issues that impact
both the client and the supervisee.
Regulations for clinical supervisors provided are ambiguous from a legal
both a and b are correct


PSY511 – Professional Ethics and the Law

97. Which is NOT one of Handelsman’s seven themes of positive ethics?
values and virtues
sensitivity and integration
ethics as innate self-care
ethical reasoning and decision making
none of the above
After a hearing, a license board makes a decision which could include
consequences. Which of the following is NOT a consequence as listed in your
paying a fine
revocation of a license
none of the above
Which of the following sources of ethical information has been given the
highest rating by certified counselors?
ACA ethical code
ACA Ethics Committee
ACA Journal of Counseling and Development
all of the above
a and conly
Licensure and certifying bodies will keep complaints of ethical misconduct
confidential, unless:
the complainant formally requests public revelation of the complain.
it is a case of sexual misconduct, in which case there is always revelation
of a complaint.
the jurisdiction requires hearings of such complaints open to the public.
never, they are always open to the public throughout the United States.