Which of the following are considered dimensions of thanatology? 1. p

1. (p. 31) Which
of the following are considered dimensions of thanatology?
1. psychological
2. anthropological
3. political
4. rational
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 2, 3 and 4
2. (p. 21) Suse
Lowenstein’s work Dark Elegy
functions as a reminder that
A. death is a dark figure.
B. life is fragile and the
survivors have to live with the loss.
C. classical and Christian symbols of death can be combined.
D. death can be dark and lonely.

3. (p. 27) It is important for police officers to receive
death education so they
A. can better appreciate the meaning of life.
B. can serve as funeral assistants.
C. will learn not to
suppress their feelings.
D. will not experience a phobia related to death scenes.

4. (p. 35) Approximately
how much has the average life expectancy in the United States increased since
A. 5 years
B. 15 years
C. 30 years
D. 45 years

5. (p. 39) Which of the following BEST describes the phrase,
“medical technology that seems to one person a godsend, extending life,
may seem to another a curse”?
A. People do not know how to manipulate machinery.
B. People do not believe in the technology.
C. The effect of new technology is unknown.
D. The effect of new
technology involves personal and social consequences.
6. (p. 33) In reviewing the status of research and practice in
thanatology, Herman Feifel points out that the
A. fear of death is a monolithic variable.
B. human mind operates on
various levels of reality, or finite provinces of meaning.
C. human mind operates in an interdependent, not autonomous, manner.
D. conscious fear of death is unrelated to innate fears.

7. (p. 19) Rembrandt
van Rijn’s work, The Suicide of
Lucretia, illustrates what theme?
A. natural death
B. sudden, unexpected death
C. fear of death
D. suicide

8. (p. 27) The
major contribution of Elisabeth Kbler-Ross’s book On Death and Dying was its focus on the
A. social practices and customs related to death.
B. meaning of death.
C. common patterns associated with near-death experiences.
D. caring for dying

9. (p. 16) All
of the following are musical expressions associated with death, EXCEPT:
A. lament.
B. kanikau.
C. dirge.
D. hautsang.

10. (p. 33) In
reviewing death anxiety research, Robert Kastenbaum says that it
A. allows individuals to
enjoy the illusion that death has been studied.
B. gives individuals an adequate picture of how death is perceived by
human beings.
C. is especially valuable in answering gender-related questions.
D. is especially useful in answering questions of practitioners working
with patients and bereaved people.

Chapter 2
11. (p. 60) The acquisition of a mature understanding of death
is part of the developmental process known as
A. cognition.
B. maturation.
C. socialization.
D. ethnocentrism.
12. (p. 51) Which theorist is associated with the developmental
model that emphasizes changes in attitudes toward death during different
psychosocial stages?
A. Mark Speece
B. Erik Erikson
C. Jean Piaget
D. Sigmund Freud

13. (p. 74) When
writer and musician Ice T refers to the “killing fields” in American
society, he is calling attention to the
A. tobacco industry’s attempt to attract young people to cigarettes.
B. impact of drunk driving on motor vehicle deaths.
C. mounting death toll from environmental pollution.
D. prevalence of
drug-related violence and gang warfare.

14. (p. 52) Erik
Erikson’s model of psychosocial development provides insight into how
A. children’s views of death are innate.
B. children’s views of death are solidified at an early age.
C. children attend to
different issues at different stages.
D. relationships have little effect on a child’s views of death.

15. (p. 55) In the study done by Helen Swain, what percentage
of children said that death is unlikely or avoidable?
A. 25 percent
B. 33 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 66 percent

16. (p. 48) In discussing how people understand death, the term
“noncorporeal continuity” refers to the idea that
A. death occurs suddenly, without warning.
B. death occurs following chronic illness.
C. human beings survive in
some form after the death of the physical body.
D. human beings are “at peace” after the death of their physical
17. (p. 69) According to the text, what percentage of Americans
are affiliated with a religious tradition?
A. 60 percent
B. 70 percent
C. 80 percent
D. 90 percent

18. (p. 68) The
concept of religiosity contains all of the following dimensions EXCEPT the
A. religious commitment.
B. knowledge about the religion’s traditions.
C. religious affiliation.
D. emotional ties to a religion.

19. (p. 57) Characteristic
of the concrete operational stage is the use of
A. motor abilities.
B. logical thinking.
C. emotional control.
D. regressive tendencies.

20. (p. 67) The text cites the lullaby “Rockabye
Baby” to illustrate the point that
A. some lullabies are improper bedtime stories.
B. a surprising number of
lullabies contain messages about death.
C. each ending in life is followed by renewal.
D. the bedtime story, “Little Red Riding Hood,” contains death

Chapter 3

21. (p. 100) What
changes occurred in the Dance of Death as a result of the plague?
A. Death became feared, something to be avoided at all costs.
B. Death became a radical,
violent break with the living.
C. Death became commonplace, an accepted part of life.
D. Death became associated with Satan, something evil.

22. (p. 101) All of the following are characteristic of
“invisible death” EXCEPT:
A. The individuals does all they can to delay death.
B. Death is the final
challenge in life.
C. Professionals care for the dying.
D. There are no witnesses to a loved one’s dying.
23. (p. 90) Traditional societies tend to view disease and
A. as a private event in which the individual is able to come to terms
with his death in his own manner.
B. very differently from what can be found in the context of preliterate
society’s modern medicine.
C. as something that occurs individually which should not be interfered
with by anyone other than one’s family.
D. as a public event that
can ultimately involve the entire community.

24. (p. 111) El Dia de los Muertos, the Mexican Day of the Dead,
blends Catholic, Spanish, and Indian rituals. This celebration exemplifies an
attitude toward death that
A. views death in an open
and often ironic manner.
B. perceives death as an incomprehensible phenomenon.
C. perceives death as the final chapter of a person’s existence.
D. views death as the ultimate test.
25. (p. 95) In the Middle Ages, a person’s impending death usually
represented a time to
1. receive absolution.
2. gather friends and family.
3. call the mortician.
4. pardon wrongdoing.
A. 1 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 1 and 4

26. (p. 125) Which
of the following are common in the practice of the traditional form of recuerdo?
1. tells the story of a person’s life in a heroic manner
2. is presented as a written ballad
3. funeral is referred to as a “home-going” ceremony honoring the
spirit of the deceased
4. gathering at the gravesite to bid god speed to the deceased
A. 1 and 2
B. 3 and 4
C. 1 and 3
D. 2 and 4

27. (p. 119) In Celtic societies, the intermediary between the
world of humankind and the domain of the supernatural was a
A. medicine man.
B. shaman.
C. druid.
D. swami.
28. (p. 113-114) Which of the following are aspects of Chinese
funeral practices?
1. There is a great emphasis on harmony between bereaved and deceased.
2. A festival known as chi’ing ming
is celebrated.
3. A butsudan can be found in
the household.
4. The rituals follow Taoist traditions.
A. 1, 2 and 4
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 2, 3 and 4
D. 1 and 4

29. (p. 93) Historically,
the Christian concept of heaven has been an important feature of attitudes
toward death in Western culture. According to the text, how have Western
attitudes toward gaining heavenly salvation changed?
A. In the early medieval period people believed salvation came from prayer
and sacrifice; later they believed salvation came from acts of charity toward
B. In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by
one’s life work; later they viewed salvation as a gift from God.
C. In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by
strict adherence to the Church’s commandments; later they believed faith in God
was needed for salvation.
D. In the early medieval
period people believed salvation came through the good graces of the Church;
later they believed salvation was gained as a result of one’s own conduct in

30. (p. 109) The LoDagaa of Africa deal with death in the following
A. They tend to avoid the topic of death.
B. They use mourning
restraints to show degrees of relationship to the deceased.
C. They elect to withhold the topic of death from their youth until they
reach adulthood.
D. They proceed with the funeral process as quickly as possible to allow
the deceased to experience peace.

Chapter 4

31. (p. 161) For a person who dies as a result of disease, the
death certificate is usually signed by the
A. county coroner.
B. state medical examiner.
C. attending physician.
D. next of kin.

32. (p. 127) Which
of the following are components of a “death system,” as described by
Robert Kastenbaum?
1. places
2. times
3. objects
4. regulations
A. 1, 3 and 4
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 2, 3 and 4

33. (p. 128) Which
of the following reasons help explain why disasters in the United States have
increased in recent years?
1. Over half of the population now lives within 50 miles of the coastline.
2. Industrialism increases human activities which may lead to disaster.
3. Modern communication leads to better warning systems prior to disaster.
4. Environmental pollution leads to new forms of disasters.
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

34. (p. 133) Which
of the following items is NOT matched correctly?
A. murder: the deliberate intentional killing of another human being
B. voluntary manslaughter:
the killing of another human being in performance of a public duty or in
C. involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another human
being as a result of criminal negligence
D. noncriminal homicide: the killing of another human being involving no
gross negligence

35. (p. 151) The Uniform Anatomical gift Act was revised in what
A. 1968
B. 1984
C. 1986
D. 1987

36. (p. 129) In
comparing the volcanic eruptions of Mount Pelee and Mount St. Helens, the main
difference mentioned in the text with respect to fatalities concerned the
A. low population density of the area near Mount Pelee.
B. adequate early warnings
in the case of Mount St. Helens.
C. mild nature of the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee.
D. actions taken by disaster workers in the case of Mount St. Helens.

37. (p. 132-133) As a result of the Hurricane Katrina disaster,
which of the following are lessons learned as summarized by security expert
Stephen Flynn?
1. We have allowed protective measures that earlier generations constructed to
deal with catastrophic events to erode.
2. There are insufficient resources available to respond effectively when disaster
3. Front-line decision makers need to be empowered to make decisions.
4. Material assets and personnel need to be moved out of harm’s way as storms
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 1, 3 and 4

38. (p. 151) Which
of the following are major provisions of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act?
1. If the person has not made a donation before death, the next of kin cannot
make it regardless of the circumstances.
2. If the person has made such a gift, it cannot be revoked by his or her relatives.
3. The gift can be amended or revoked at any time before the death of the
4. The time of death must be determined by a physician who is not involved in
any transplantation.
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

39. (p. 131) What
is a common shortcoming of disaster relief efforts?
A. They lack adequate financial support.
B. They provide for physical needs, but are indifferent to the emotional
needs of survivors.
C. They provide short-term
support during the emergency, but neglect the long-term consequences of a
D. They fail to understand the affected communities and thus tend to make
mistakes that complicate recovery.
40. (p. 157) The modes of death recognized by law include all of
the following categories EXCEPT:
A. accident.
B. homicide.
C. mature death.
D. suicide.

Chapter 5

41. (p. 180) In
which country was the most influential modern hospice established?
A. United States
B. England
C. Japan
D. Switzerland

42. (p. 174) What should a physician do after a patient’s
illness is diagnosed as life threatening?
A. withhold the information from the patient
B. inform the patient indirectly
C. inform the patient
D. tell the patient’s family first
43. (p. 177) The style of medical communication is important
because it
A. draws more patients to the hospital.
B. helps to change the impersonal image of hospitals.
C. decreases the family’s anxiety and fear.
D. affects the outcome of

44. (p. 170) Depersonalization
of the dying patient can occur when
1. an illness is not well understood.
2. physicians and nurses believe “nothing more can be done.”
3. physicians and nurses avoid contact due to their own mortal fears.
4. costly medical bills remain unpaid.
A. 1, 2 and 4
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 2, 3 and 4
D. 1, 2 and 3

45. (p. 190) The
purpose of the triage system is to
A. use med-evac services more efficiently.
B. avoid prioritizing among patients.
C. reduce the time between
injury and care.
D. standardize medical treatment.
46. (p. 173) A recent change in the relationship between medical
practitioners and patients is that it has become
A. more impersonal and distant.
B. more close and intimate.
C. less authoritarian.
D. less covenantal.
47. (p. 194) The emphasis on cure among medical professionals
can result in death being
A. discussed objectively and openly.
B. seen as an oddity.
C. seen as a natural event.
D. viewed as a medical

48. (p. 172) The “principle of symmetry” advocated by
Daniel Callahan states that technology should be judged by a balance between
A. cost and the seriousness of the illness.
B. extension and quality of
C. cost and the extension of life.
D. desire to live and the cost of medical care.
49. (p. 183-185) All of the following are challenges to hospice and
palliative care EXCEPT:
A. educating public and professionals about end-of-life care.
B. funding for services.
C. broadening access to encompass underserved patient populations.
D. lack of routinization of
care and regulation.

50. (p. 185) Which
of the following are included in William Lamers’ “levels” of hospice
1. conventional hospice care
2. long-term hospice care
3. traditional hospice care
4. high-tech hospice care
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 2, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 1, 3 and 4

Chapter 6

51. (p. 235) What
type of insurance settlement allows an individual with terminal illness to sell
his or her policy before death for a lump sum settlement?
A. volume
B. viatical
C. face value
D. percentage

52. (p. 225) A wallet card signifying that an individual has
completed an advance directive is urged by some commentators so that the
A. hospital staff will know that the individual has prepared a will.
B. hospital staff will know the patient is insured.
C. individual will not be
forced to receive unwanted medical care.
D. family members will not be forced to pay for the patient’s hospital
53. (p. 233) Approximately what percentage of Americans die
without making a will?
A. 10 percent
B. 30 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 70 percent
54. (p. 207) Ethical questions regarding the “right to
die” first came to public attention in the landmark court case
A. Nancy Beth Cruzan.
B. Karen Ann Quinlan.
C. Nancy Ellen Jobes.
D. Elizabeth Bouvia.

55. (p. 202) When dealing with a life-threatening disease, most
doctors strive to achieve a balance between informed consent and the
A. likelihood of coping mechanisms being present.
B. patient’s ability to
understand the proposed treatment.
C. patient’s ability to survive during the course of the disease.
D. likelihood of patient litigation.

56. (p. 216-217) Which of the following statements presents a case
against euthanasia using the “wedge” or “slippery slope”
A. “Euthanasia may or
may not be ethical, but by permitting it we may unwittingly pave the way for
acts that are clearly immoral.”
B. “Euthanasia is contrary to the Hippocratic Oath, which pledges
physicians to sustain life not take it.”
C. “Euthanasia may or may not be ethical, but by permitting it we may
unwittingly create a burden on the judiciary when such decisions enter the
legal arena.”
D. “Euthanasia is contrary to good ethical judgment because medical
science is not infallible and a mistaken diagnosis could cause a needless

57. (p. 222) The
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care involves an agent who is
A. assigned by the court.
B. chosen by the patient’s family.
C. designated by the person
executing the document.
D. recommended by health professionals.
58. (p. 223) The Patient Self-Determination Act requires
health-care facilities to do which of the following?
1. inform adult patients of their rights to accept or refuse treatment
2. refuse admission to patients who fail to sign an advance directive
3. document whether the patient has executed an advance directive
4. provide education about advance directives to staff members and the
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

59. (p. 228) The conventional document used for specifying a
person’s wishes for the distribution of his or her estate after death is
A. holographic will.
B. nuncupative will.
C. formally executed will.
D. conditional will.
60. (p. 210) The Cruzan case highlighted the need for
A. explicit laws about the removal of artificial feeding tubes.
B. new definitions of death.
C. advance directives.
D. judicial interpretation of death-related questions.

Chapter 7
61. (p. 270-271) Which of the following are spiritual needs of dying
1. need for hope and creativity
2. need to complete a will
3. need to give and receive love
4. need for meaning and purpose
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4
62. (p. 240) The way in which an individual copes with
A. depends on the doctors’ attitudes.
B. often contrasts with usual coping patterns.
C. depends mostly on the length of the illness.
D. usually resembles
lifelong coping patterns.

63. (p. 260) What is ikigai
A. an ancient belief that if death is faced positively, a favorable
afterlife will follow
B. a modern Japanese treatment for AIDS
C. a therapy to help a patient’s family deal with the death of a loved one
D. a therapy that helps
patients live fully and meaningfully
64. (p. 245) The success of dealing with a crisis is largely
determined by the
1. congruency of beliefs and actions.
2. social support a family receives.
3. number of children in a family.
4. socioeconomic status of a family.
A. 1 and 2
B. 1 and 3
C. 1 and 4
D. 2 and 4

65. (p. 245) According to the open awareness concept, when in
the presence of someone who is dying, one should
A. display a confident attitude.
B. continually offer reassurance about regaining health.
C. admit feelings of
D. avoid contact if uncomfortable.
66. (p. 242) Which of the following terms BEST describes the
process of a person who feels responsible for bringing a terminal illness on
himself or herself?
A. dying trajectory
B. magical thinking
C. reactive thinking
D. physiological guilt

67. (p. 250) The
real estate wanted advertisement in the text is used to illustrate which of the
A. desires to accomplish
plans that previously had been put off to be done in the future
B. the denial stage of coping with a life-threatening illness
C. a dying persons attempt to “get away from it all”
D. preparing for death and saying goodbye

68. (p. 245) Pretense,
as a way of coping with painful circumstances such as a terminal illness,
A. is never a truly effective means of coping.
B. can be a useful
short-term strategy for coping.
C. rarely occurs among family members.
D. does not recur once openness is achieved.
69. (p. 249) Which of the following are the three major
psychological and behavioral patterns that individuals use in coping with the
threat of death as identified by Therese Rando?
1. retreat and conservation of energy
2. attack and evaluate the threat
3. attempting to master or control the threat of death
4. exclusion from the threat of death
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

70. (p. 240) Cancer is acknowledged to be the
A. number one cause of death in America.
B. most feared
life-threatening illness.
C. disease for passive-type people.
D. synonym for death and dying.

Chapter 8

71. (p. 283) According to Leroy Bowman, funerals
A. are overlaid with such
ostentation that the fundamental dignity of such rites has all but disappeared.
B. are lacking in serious religious symbols, which diminishes the dignity
of funeral rites.
C. have remained largely unchanged throughout history, which promotes a
sense of mysticism in the experience.
D. have improved in modern society to meet the needs of the bereaved.
72. (p. 299) Which of the following is generally considered an
unorthodox method of body disposition?
A. burial
B. cryonics
C. cremation
D. donation to science

73. (p. 284) Jessica
Mitford found modern funeral practices to be
A. interesting.
B. enlightening.
C. beautiful.
D. morbid.

74. (p. 288) Itemizing funeral costs is designed to change the
pattern of
A. selecting funeral services “a la carte.”
B. equating the most expensive casket with the most elaborate funeral.
C. using the layaway payment schedule.
D. paying for unnecessary
and unwanted services.
75. (p. 274) The American funeral is
A. structured around the wishes of the deceased.
B. enacted to preserve memories of the deceased.
C. focused on the welfare
of the survivors.
D. seen as a vehicle for the dead to emigrate.

76. (p. 301) In
which of the following countries is cremation the most common method of body
A. Norway
B. Russia
C. India
D. Canada

77. (p. 278) When helping a bereaved family, the most important
objective is to
A. provide financial support.
B. maintain the house until the family adjusts and can proceed with a
normal life.
C. demonstrate care and
D. help the bereaved family adjust to a new life.
78. (p. 302) The “ashes” left from the cremation
process are
A. 20 to 30 pounds in weight.
B. like coarse coral sand.
C. different shades according to the person’s ethnicity.
D. as fine as dust.

79. (p. 290) The
FTC Funeral Rule requires that mortuaries
A. obtain express
permission from the family in order to charge a fee for the embalming
B. embalm the deceased if the funeral is more than three days after death.
C. disclose all embalming fees to a federal regulatory agency.
D. use an approved list of chemicals for embalming.
80. (p. 299) Cryonics is a method of
A. freezing.