Write a paper (1200 words) in which you analyze and appraise each of the (15) articles identified in Topic 1. Pay particular attention to evidence that supports the problem issue or deficit and your proposed solution.

Hint: The Topic 2 readings provide appraisal questions that will assist you to efficiently and effectively analyze each article.
1.Why was the study done? Was there a clear explanation of the purpose of the study and if so what was it?
2.What is the sample size? Were there enough people in the study to establish that the findings did not occur by chance?
3. Are the instruments of the major variables valid and reliable? How were variables defined? Were the instruments designed to measure a concept valid (did they measure what the researchers said they measured)? Were they reliable (did they measure a concept the same way every time they were used)?
4.How were the data analyzed? What statistics were used to determine if the purpose of the study was achieved?
5.Were there any untoward events during the study? Did people leave the study and if so was there something special about them?
6.How do the results fit with previous research in the area? Did the researchers base their work on a thorough literature review?
7.What does this research mean for clinical practice? Is the study purpose an important clinical issue?
Refer to Sample Format for Review of Literature RefWorks and Topic 2: Checklist.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Topic 2: Checklist
Review of Literature and Incorporating Theory
This checklist is designed to help students organize the weekly exercises/assignments to be completed as preparation for the final capstone project proposal. This checklist will also serve as a communication tool between students and faculty. Comments feedback and grading for modules 1-4 will be documented using this checklist.
Topic Task Completed Comments / Feedback Points
Review of Literature
Analyze and appraise each of the 15 articles identified in module 1. (15 articles). _____ / 90
Analysis organized using the sample provided in Sample Format for Review of Literature.
_____ / 10
Total _____/100
Incorporating Theory Identified a theory that can be used to support proposed solution. _____ / 10
Main components of theory described. _____ / 10
Rationale for selecting theory provided. _____ / 10
Discussed how theory works to support proposed solution.
_____ / 5
Explained how theory will be incorporated into project. _____ / 5
Total _____/40
Original Article
Translating an Evidence-Based Protocol
for Nurse-to-Nurse Shift Handoffs
Marlene Dufault RN PhD Cathy E. Duquette RN PhD CPHQ NEA-BC Jeanne Ehmann RN MS CPHQ
Rose Hehl RN BS Mary Lavin RNP MS Valerie Martin RN MS NE-BC CHE Mary Ann Moore RN BS
Shirley Sargent RN MS Patricia Stout RNP MS Cynthia Willey PhD
Purpose: Ineffective communication is the most frequently reported cause of sentinel events in U.S.
hospitals. Examining hospital processes and systems of communication and standardizing communication
practices can reduce the risks to patients in the acute care environment. The purpose of this paper
is to describe the use of an innovative translating-research-into-practice model to generate and test a
cost-effective easy to use best-practice protocol for nurse-to-nurse shift handoffs in a medium-sized
magnet-designated community hospital in the United States.
Theoretical Framework: Rogers Diffusion of Innovations Theory was used as the overall framework
for the translational model with Orlandos theory providing theoretical evidence for the best practice
Approach: Using the first three steps of the model methods included: (1) identifying clinical problems
related to shift handoffs; (2) appraising and systematically evaluating the strength of theoretical empirical
and clinical evidence; and (3) translating this evidence into a best-practice patient-centered standardized
protocol for nurse-to-nurse shift handoffs.
Conclusions/Implications: Meaningful clinician participation in the development of a standardized
evidence-based patient-centered approach to nurses change-of-shift handoffs was achieved. Using the
Collaborative Research Utilization Model can facilitate the integration of new knowledge both in the
clinical and academic community.
KEYWORDS translational research evidence-based clinical policy collaborative research utilization model
nurse-to-nurse shift handoffs shift report handoffs end-of-shift report nurse-to-nurse report bedside
shift report computerized report
Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2010; 7(2):5975. Copyright 2010 Sigma Theta Tau International
Marlene Dufault Professor College of Nursing University of Rhode Island and Research Consultant Newport Hospital Kingston RI; Cathy E. Duquette Vice President
Nursing and Patient Care Services Newport Hospital Newport RI; Jeanne Ehmann Director Performance Improvement & Evaluation Newport Hospital Newport RI; Rose
Hehl Staff Nurse Newport Hospital Newport RI; Mary Lavin Associate Clinical Professor College of Nursing University of Rhode Island Kingston RI; Valerie Martin
Director of Surgical Services Newport Hospital Newport RI; Mary Ann Moore Staff Nurse Newport Hospital Newport RI; Shirley Sargent Doctoral Student & Research
Assistant College of Nursing University of Rhode Island Kingston RI; Patricia Stout Associate Clinical Professor College of Nursing University of Rhode Island Kingston
RI; Cynthia Willey Professor College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island Kingston RI.
This project was funded by the Delta Upsilon Chapter-at-Large Sigma Theta Tau International and by The Nursing Foundation of Rhode Island. We wish to acknowledge the
contributions of the University of Rhode Island College of Nursing Class of 2008; Barbara Davis Newport Hospital librarian; Jean Taft RN and the Newport Hospital nursing
staff who opened their practice to the eyes of research.
Address correspondence to Marlene Dufault PhD RN College of Nursing White Hall University of Rhode Island Kingston RI 02881; mdufault@mail.uri.edu
Accepted 23 January 2010
Copyright2010 Sigma Theta Tau International
Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing Second Quarter 2010 59
Protocol for Nurse-to-Nurse Handoffs
Adverse events resulting from faulty communications
are a leading cause of death and injury in hospitals
in the United States even though there is empirical evidence
to support interventions aimed at preventing their
occurrence. In recent years experts in health care communications
research have speculated that many omissions
of relevant patient care and missing or incorrect communication
of patient information problems are related to a
lack of research-based standards in administrative protocols
and policies (National Quality Forum [NQF] 2005).
The NQF report recommends a standardized approach to
handoff communications as 1 of 30 high-priority practices
that have strong evidence base can be generalized
and are likely to benefit patient safety if implemented.
Such practices were derived from the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Qualitys (AHRQ) University of California
San Francisco-Stanford University Evidence-Based
Practice Center (AHRQ 2001) and the NQF project Steering
Committee. The transmission of care information in a
timely and clearly understandable form to patients current
healthcare providers who need that information to provide
care ranks in the top-10 of this NQF-endorsed set of safe
practices (NQF p. vii).
As accreditation and regulatory groups began targeting
communication as a quality-of-care indicator inadequate
information transfer has expanded from an individual
administrative problem to a public health policy issue
(Joint Commission 2005). The Joint Commission has published
guidelines that specifically address recommendations
for nursing shift handoffs (Joint Commission 2005).
In its 2006 National Patient Safety Goals the commission
requires hospitals in the U.S. to Implement a standardized
approach to hand-off communications including
an opportunity to ask and respond to questions. (Joint
Commission 2005). However integrating these guidelines
along with the findings of empirical theoretical and clinical
evidence into standards of care and then translating
these into the day-to-day caregiving activities of frontline
clinicians has posed a significant challenge.
For nursing patient safety and quality is directly
linked to correct and complete information received at
the change-of-shift interchange. Nurses use shift report
information in assessing patient needs planning patient
care establishing goals and prioritizing and managing
their care. Hospitals in the U.S. recognize and benchmark
(through participation in performance improvement
surveys provided by such organizations as Press-Ganey)
the toll of missing or incorrect communication of patient
information resulting in omission of patient care
and dissatisfaction from patients families and clinicians
(Press-Ganey 2002). For example Press-Ganey Survey
data revealed an opportunity for improvement in scores on
variables related to patient confidence in care their feeling
safe and secure being kept informed being included in
the decision-making process of patient goals and perceiving
how well the staff work together to care for them. In
addition nurse satisfaction related to nurse-to-nurse interaction
teamwork among nurses and having adequate time
for patient care was also benchmarked against the National
Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (2006).
The literature suggesting that clinicians do not apply
what is known about best handoff practices is copious
(Lamond 2000; Payne et al. 2000; Sexton et al. 2004). A
major barrier to using the evidence of current research
for attaining best handoff practice is clinician and patient
attitudes and lack of knowledge (Manias & Street 2000;
Sexton et al. 2004). Numerous studies indicate that handoffs
are often lacking in depth (Lamond 2000; Sexton et al.
2004). Nursing school curricula on handoffs is only fairly
adequate and varies widely based on current practices in
clinical agencies in which students receive their clinical experience.
Other barriers include system problems (Hardy
et al. 2000) and lack of standards policies and protocols
that integrate research innovations into practice (Sherlock
1995; Joint Commission 2005).